What are the practical reasons for still having transposing instruments?

Answer

  • Some instrument families (saxophones, clarinets, double reeds) have variants which change the instrument range by something other than an octave. To make it easy to switch between instruments in the same family, the parts for these instruments are transposed so the same written note has the same fingering, but produces a different actual pitch.

  • Even when the range of two possible tunings of an instrument are basically the same, the two tunings are often kept around for instruments like woodwinds where playing in a key too far removed from the instrument's "native key" is difficult. The pieces for these alternate tunings are transposed for the same reason as the previous point (easier to switch).

  • We already have a huge body of work written for transposing instruments, and virtually all musicians playing those instruments are very familiar with reading for those instruments in their transposed keys. Changing all that requires editing every piece of music that's ever existed before being able to put it in front of people trained to read the instrument in concert pitch (or an adjusted simplified transposition), and retraining all existing musicians (or maintaining transposed and concert-pitch versions of all sheet music until all the traditionally-trained musicians retire/die off).

  • The bass clef reads the way it does because of its position in the grand staff; "Middle C" (C4) is exactly one leger line above the bass clef and exactly one leger line below the treble clef. That's why middle C is so named. It makes more sense, given that explanation, to keep it that way than to try to change it. If you like, you can move the bass clef up one line, to indicate that the top line represents F, creating the subbass clef; the staff would read exactly like the treble clef then, but you'd confuse the hell out of most bass-clef readers.

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