Showing posts from December, 2018

State and prove Pascal’s law and give its experimental proof also


It states that if gravity effect is neglected, the pressure at every point of liquid in equilibrium of rest is same.

Proof : Consider two points C and D inside the liquid in a container which is in equilibrium of rest. Imagine a right circular cylinder with axis CD of uniform cross-sectional area A such that points C and D lie on float faces of the cylinder in figure

The liquid inside the cylinder is in equilibrium under the action of forces exerted by the liquid outside the cylinder. These forces are acting every where perpendicular to the surface of the cylinder. Thus force on the flat faces of the cylinder at C and D will perpendicular to the forces on the curved surface of the cylinder. Since the liquid is in equilibrium, therefore, the sum of forces acting on the curved surface of the cylinder must be zero. If P1 and P2 are the pressure at points C and D and F1 and F2 are the forces acting on the flat faces of the cylinder due to liquid,

Experimental Proof. Consider a spheric…

What are the demerits of democracy? Explain


Democracy is better than any other form of government. It gives equal rights and freedom to every individual. But then also, it has some demerits.
Following are the demerits of democracy :

(i) Unstable government Lots of political parties are allowed to criticise the government and its policies. Sometimes, it leads to the downfall of the ruling party and re-elections in the country. This gives instability to the government.

(ii) Slow and inefficient government The most common demerit of democracy is that, it is slow in its functioning. The decision-making process involves long debates and deliberations in the Parliament. This takes a lot of time before the decisions are actually taken.

(iii) Incompetence Democracy gives every individual the right to voice his concern. As a result, everybody focusses on his personal interests and not the -
collective interests. This sometimes leads to incompetent and wrong selections of the candidates in the government.

(iv) Role of money in a democrac…

Explain the process of unification of Italy


Political Fragmentation of Italy Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italy was divided into seven states during the middle of the nineteenth century.
Of these seven states only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. At that time North of Italy was under Austrian Habsburg, the centre was ruled by Pope and the Southern regions were ruled by the Bourbon kings of Spain.

Role of Mazzini:
During 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had tried to unite Italy. He formed the secret society called young Italy.
But both the uprising in 1831 and 1848 failed. Even the ruling elites also wanted a unified Italy which would offer economic development and political dominance.

Role of Cavour:

The unification of Italy was a result of many wars. Chief Minister Cavour made a tactful diplomatic alliance with France, and Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.

Role of Garibaldi:
A large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi jo…

Differentiate between economic and non-economic activities


Basis of difference : Meaning :
1. Economic activities : Economic activities are those activities which are performed to earn a livelihood.
2. Non-economic activities : Non-economic activities are those activities which are performed out of love, sympathy, sentiments, patriotism, etc
Aim :
1. Economic activities :
The main aim of these activities is to earn profits
2. Non-economic activities : The main aim of these activities is psychological satisfaction.
End result :
1. Economic activities :
The end result of these activi-ties is to satisfy human need…
2. Non-economic activities :The end result of these activities is mental satisfaction of the person performing them.
Examples :
1. Economic activities :
A teacher, a carpenter,a doctor, an artist, etc
2. Non-economic activities : A teacher teaching her own son, a doctor treating poor patients without charging any fees, etc.

Distinguish between the Federal form of Government and Unitary form of Government. Or What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one ? Explain with an example


Differentiate between Horizontal division of powers and vertical division of powers


Difference between Horizontal division of powers and Vertical division of powers.

Horizontal Division of Powers
(i) Horizontal Division of powers is such a power sharing arrangement in which power is shared , among different organs of government as, legislature, executive and judiciary.

(ii) In horizontal division of powers, different organs of government exercise different powers, i.e., there is a concept of separation of powers.

(iii) Horizontal distribution specifies the concept of checks and balances in order to check the exercises of unlimited powers of the organs.

(iv) Horizontal distribution of power ensures the concept of the expansion of democracy.

Vertical Divisions of Powers
(i) In Vertical Division of powers, power can be shared among governments at different levels like union, state and local levels of such government, i.e., it involves higher and lower levels of government.

(ii) Whereas, in vertical division of powers, constitution clearly lays down the powers of differe…

Find out valencies of first 20 elements


What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005?


Three features of NREGA are

(i) It guarantees 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women.

(ii) The scheme will initially be started in 200 districts. Later on, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts.

(iii) If an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days, she/he will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.

How are the three sectors of economy interdependent ?


There are three sectors of economy feasibly found i.e. Primary sector, Secondary sector and Tertiary sector. All the three sectors are interdependent.
Some examples are given to elucidate this fact

(i) Agricultural activities produce raw materials for agro- based industries and food for employees in Secondary and Tertiary sectors. It shows industrial sector and service sector’s dependency on Primary sector.

(ii) Industrial activities produce instruments like tractor, fertiliser for agricultural inputs and increase production and productivity in agriculture. Here, Primary sector depends on Secondary sector.

(iii) Transportation facilities are much required for transportation of agricultural products and industrial products to market rural and urban centres. Here, Primary and Secondary sector depend on Tertiary sector.

(iv) Industrial sector produces trucks, autos etc for transportation, computer assets for proper banking activities and knowledge outsourcing. So, it shows that now Tert…

Explain any five reasons responsible for water scarcity in India


Five reasons for water scarcity in India are :

(i) Seasonal and annual variation in precipitation.

(ii) Unequal access.

(iii) Overexploitation.

(iv) Availability of water varies over space and time.

(v) Excessive use of water resources.

(vi) Many cities have large and growing population resulting in greater demand 
for water resources. A large population means, not only more water is required for domestic use but also for higher foodgrain productivity. This has led to over-exploitation of water resources to expand irrigated areas especially for dry season agriculture. It has also contributed to falling ground water levels, adversely affecting the water availability and food security of the people.

(vii) Today the multinational companies and other industrial units consume large quantities of hydroelectric power and for processing which put greater pressure on the existing fresh water resources in India. Multiplying urban areas with dense population and modern life styles have created an …

List the three events that occur during the process of photosynthesis. Explain the role of stomata in this process


The three events that occur during the process of photosynthesis are:

(i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.

(ii) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.

(iii) Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.

Role of stomata These help in the gaseous exchange between the plant and its atmosphere. Thus, it assist in supply of carbon dioxide, essential for photosynthesis.

Differentiate between soap and detergent


(a) Soaps : Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain carboxylic acids.Soaps have lesser cleansing action or quality as compared to detergents.Soaps are made from animal or plant fats.Soaps are more biodegradable.
Detergents :Detergents are ammonium or solphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids.Detergents have better cleansing action as compared to soaps.Detergents are made from petrochemicals. Detergents are less biodegradable.
(b) Hard water :
Hard Water contains ions of calcium and magnesium which react with soap molecules to form insoluble precipitates called soap scum.

Describe any five features of federal government. Or Explain any five features of federalism


‘Federal Government’ is a set of government in which powers are distributed between a central authority and various constitutional units.

The key features of a federal government are as follows:

(i) Two or more levels of Government: In a federal government there are two or more levels of government at the State, provincial and local levels. As an exception in India we have third level of government i.e., at the local level.

(ii) Constitutional Status : Federalism provides constitutional guarantees for the existence and authority of each tier of government. The jurisdiction of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in the constitution.

(iii) Independent Judiciary: Independent judiciary is the essence of federal government. Here courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of the different levels of government. The highest court acts as an umpire if a dispute arises between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective pow…

Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger


The differences between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger can be summarised as follows

Explain land use pattern in India

Full Question

Answer the following questions in about 120 words:

(i) Explain land use pattern in India. Why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?

(ii) How have technical and economic developments led to more consumption of resources?


(i) Land resources in India are primarily divided into
agricultural land, forest land, land meant for pasture and grazing, land for other non-agricultural use(such as housing, roads and industry) and waste land (rocky, arid and desert areas). In 2002-03, 54 per cent of the total land area was cultivable or fallow, 22.5 per cent was covered by forests and 3.5 per cent was used for grazing. The rest was waste land, with traces of miscellaneous cultivation.
Improper use of forest land has degraded the available land area and made conservation of forests difficult. Human activities such as deforestation, mining and quarrying have contributed to the slow growth rate of forests. Thus, land ’ under forest has increased by only about 4 per c…

Differentiate between binary fission and multiple fission


Binary Fission :

(i) Nucleus divides into two parts.
(ii) It occurs during normal conditions.
(iii) It gives rise to two individuals.
(iv) Cytoplasm divides after each nuclear division.
e.g., Amoeba.

Multiple Fission :

(i) Nucleus divides into many parts.
(ii) It takes place during unfavourable conditions (Encysted stage),
(iii) It forms many individuals.
(iv) Cytoplasm does not divide after every nuciear division.
e.g., Plasmodium.

How do social divisions affect politics ? Give suitable examples


Social divisions” affect politics in both negative ways and positive ways.

Negative Impact

If we observe social division and politics together at first sight;

(i) It would appear that the combination of politics and social divisions is very dangerous and explosive.

(ii) Democracy involves competition among various political units/parties. Their competition tends to divide the society.
In case political parties start competing in terms of some prevalent social differences it can further lead to social conflict and disintegration of society. For example, Yugoslavia and Northern Ireland.
• In Northern Ireland there has been a violent and bitter ethnopolitical conflict for many years.
• In the same way political competition along religious and ethnic lines lead to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.

Positive Impact

(i) At the same time every expression of social divisions in politics does not lead to such disasters because wherever social divisions exist, they a…

‘The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.’ Support the statement with examples.


The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement. The main differences between these two movements are

(i) The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched in 1921 by Gandhiji, but the Civil Disobedience Movement was launched in 1930.

(ii) The Non-Cooperation Movement started with middle class participation whereas the Civil Disobedience Movement was first supported by the Industrialists like GD Birla, Purshottamdas Thakur.

(iii) Due to Khalifa issues Muslim community participated in Non-Cooperation on large scale. But the growing proximity of the Congress party and Hindu Mahasabha prevented the Muslims to participate in Civil Disobedience Movement.

(iv) The Non-Cooperation Movement was withdrawn by Gandhiji due to violent incident at Chauri Chaura.
But the Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn in 1931, when Gandhi signed ‘Gandhi-Irwin’ pact.

(v) In Non-Cooperation Movement, Women did not participate in large scale. But large scale participation of women i…

Prove that Newtons second law is the real law of motion


Proof. When we can show that Newton’s first and third law are contained in the second law, then we can say that it is the real law of motion.
(i) First law is contained in second law: According to Newton’s second law of motion, It means that there will be no acceleration in the body if no external force is applied. This represents that a body at rest will remain at rest and a body in uniform motion will continue to move along the same straight line in the absence of an external force. This corresponds to Newton’s first law of motion. So, first law of motion is contained in Second law of motion

Write a short note on Narmada Bachao Andolan


Narmada Bachao Andolan is a movement initiated by environmentalists, farmers, tribal people and human rights activists against the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dam on Narmada river in Gujarat. It has become a controversial issue due to the problems in the form of displacement of local people, loss of livelihood, floods, deforestation, etc.

What do you mean by social differences and social divisions?


Social differences are the situations where people are discriminated against on the basis of social, economic, and racial inequality.
On the other hand, social division means division of society on the basis of social differences like language, region, caste, colour, race and sex.
Social differences can be easily accommodated with some reservation policies.
But social division sometimes lead to political division of the country.

Give reasons why tertiary sector has become so important in India ? Or Give five reasons for the rising importance of the tertiary sector in India


Tertiary sector has become important in India because :

(i) Basic services like hospitals, education, post and telegraph, courts, etc. are the responsibility of the government in developing countries.

(ii) Demand for services such as transport, trade, storage will increase with the development of primary and secondary sectors.

(iii) Demand for tourism, shopping, private schools, private hospitals, etc. increases with the increase in the level of income.

(iv) Rapid growth of services sector also benefitted from external demand such as software industry and call centre services.

(v) Liberalisation of financial sector provided an environment for faster growth of financial services.

Derive the formula for rise of liquid in a capillary tube (Ascent formula)


When one end of capillary tube of radius r is immersed into a liquid of density P which wets the sides of capillary tube (say water and capillary tube of glass), the shape of the liquid is in the tube becomes concave upwards in figure

Collect information about the history of spherical mirrors in human civilization


The first mirrors used by people were most likely pools of water, or water. The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stones.Parabolic mirrors were described and studied in classical antiquity by the mathematician Diodes in his work on burning mirrors.Ptolemy conducted a number of experiments with curved polished iron mirrors. He also discussed plane, convex, concave and spherical mirrors in his optics.In China, people began making mirrors with the use of silver mercury amalgams as early as 500 AD.In 16th century, Venice, a big city formed for its glass making expertise, became a centre of mirror production using this new technique.The invention of the silvered - glass mirror is created to German Chemist Justus Von Liebig in 1835.

What is resource planning ? Why is resource planning essential ? Explain with three reasons. Or What is resource planning ? Explain any three reasons responsible for making resource planning in India


Resource Planning -
Resource planning refers to the strategy for planned and judicious utilisation of resources. Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.

Resource planning is essential for India as there is enormous diversity in the availability of resources. For example the state of Rajasthan has vast potential for the development of solar and wind energy but is deficient in water resources.
The cold desert of Ladakh has rich cultural heritage but is deficient in water and some strategic minerals.

The state of Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks infrastructure which shows mere availability of resources in the absence of technology and institutions hinders development.
This shows that the resource planning is needed at the national, regional, state and local levels for balanced development of a country.

Explain the difference between primary, secondary and tertiary sectors using examples


(i) Primary Sector (or Agriculture sector).
It includes all those economic activities which are connected with extraction and production of natural resources, e.g., agriculture, fishing, mining, etc.

(ii) Secondary Sector (or Industrial sector).
It includes all activities which are concerned with the processing materials which have already been extracted at the primary stage, e.g., the mining of iron ore is primary industry, but manufacture of steel is secondary industry.

(iii) Tertiary Sector (or Service sector).
It is concerned with providing support services to primary and secondary sector and includes transport, banking, insurance, warehousing, communication, advertising, etc. It facilitates smooth flow of goods and services in the economy. Importance of tertiary sector has been observed in the last decade and its contribution to GDP has also risen.

Distinguish between ‘coming together’ and ‘holding together’ type of federations


Briefly explain the administration of “AAPHER PHYSICAL FITNESS


AAPHER Physical fitness Test: 
This test was designed to help the teachers of physical education and other recreation leaders in the field to find out the performance levels of their students, compare them with national norms and inspire them towards the higher levels of achievements.

Test Contents : The test consists of the following six items :

(a) Pull ups : In case of girls, the pull-ups are to be started from a flexed arm hang. This test item judges the arm and shoulder girdle strength.

(b) Flexed Leg Situps : This test is meant to judge the efficiency of abdominal and hip flexor muscles.

© Shuttle Run : This test item is meant for judging the speed and change of direction.

(d) Standing Long Jump : For judging the explosive power of leg muscles.

(e) 50 Yard Dash or Sprint : For judging speed.

(f) 600 Yard Run : For judging endurance.

Administration of Tests:

These tests can be conducted in a gymnasium or out-doors. The only apparatus required in these tests is a horizontal bar having…

Explain the working of electric motor with a neat diagram


Electric motor: A motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Principle of motor : A motor works on the principle that when a rectangular coil is placed in a magnetic field and current is passed through it. A force acts on the coil which rotates it continuously.

When electric current is passed into the rectangular coil, this current produces a magnetic field around the coil.The magnetic field of horse shoe-type magnet then interacts with the magnetic field of the coil and causes the coil to rotate continuously.If ABCD is in horizontal position current from battery enters the coil through brush $B _{ 1 }$, and commutator half ring C:. The current flows in the direction ABCD
and leaves via ring and brush $B _{ 2 }$The direction of current is from A to B, the direction of current is from C to D. The force on side AB of the coil is in the downward direction. Whereas the force on the side CD of the coil is in the upward direction. ABCD rotate in anti-clock…

How can I practice in an apartment without annoying the neighbours?


I think your best bet is to get something with a headphone out. Some amps will have them, although probably only solid state ones. A lot of the digital modeling /fx units will have it too (like Pod). Just don't blow your ears out!

How to make ASIO work with multiple programs simultaneously : how can I listen to Guitar Rig plus something else through the same interface?


I think I know where is the issue. My Windows-fu is rusty, but here is what I found.
Solution, in short Get ASIO multi-client from here or here (they are different, you might want to try both). After installation you should be able to use your interface with more than one program.
What is happening? Seems that ASIO in general (including ASIO4ALL) can't handle more than one program using one same output. Support for using ASIO with multiple programs at once. Previously, if you were using an ASIO driver (so that you have low latency), you could only use ASIO with one program at a time. Now you can use multiple programs at once with ASIO - for example RealBand and Band-in-a-Box at the same time.
Steinberg solved this by creating an ASIO multi-client server that you need to download and install. Seems that this is exactly what you need, and seems to work with all ASIO capable interfaces.

There are other ASIO multi-client drivers you can try, like this one:…

How necessary is an USB Audio Interface?


"Worth the money" is very subjective. Let's instead talk about the various factors you have to consider.
Fitting A into B Good quality microphones usually have XLR connectors. These have three wires arranged so that any interference picked up in the cable is cancelled out. Many USB audio interfaces have XLR sockets (but check that the one you choose does). Your computer's microphone input will be a stereo 3.5mm socket. So if you don't buy a suitable audio interface, you have the issue of physically plugging stuff together. You can get XLR to 3.5mm cables, such as this one.

These are not all that common, and I see anecdotes on the internet about many of them being incorrectly wired. However, it's potentially an $8 spend that would allow you to make-do without a USB interface.
Power XLR doesn't only carry a sound signal. Condenser microphones need power, and usually the most convenient way to get power to the mic is phantom power, whereby a small current is c…