State and prove Pascal’s law and give its experimental proof also


It states that if gravity effect is neglected, the pressure at every point of liquid in equilibrium of rest is same.

Proof : Consider two points C and D inside the liquid in a container which is in equilibrium of rest. Imagine a right circular cylinder with axis CD of uniform cross-sectional area A such that points C and D lie on float faces of the cylinder in figure

The liquid inside the cylinder is in equilibrium under the action of forces exerted by the liquid outside the cylinder. These forces are acting every where perpendicular to the surface of the cylinder. Thus force on the flat faces of the cylinder at C and D will perpendicular to the forces on the curved surface of the cylinder. Since the liquid is in equilibrium, therefore, the sum of forces acting on the curved surface of the cylinder must be zero. If P1 and P2 are the pressure at points C and D and F1 and F2 are the forces acting on the flat faces of the cylinder due to liquid,

Experimental Proof. Consider a spheric…

What are the demerits of democracy? Explain


Democracy is better than any other form of government. It gives equal rights and freedom to every individual. But then also, it has some demerits.
Following are the demerits of democracy :

(i) Unstable government Lots of political parties are allowed to criticise the government and its policies. Sometimes, it leads to the downfall of the ruling party and re-elections in the country. This gives instability to the government.

(ii) Slow and inefficient government The most common demerit of democracy is that, it is slow in its functioning. The decision-making process involves long debates and deliberations in the Parliament. This takes a lot of time before the decisions are actually taken.

(iii) Incompetence Democracy gives every individual the right to voice his concern. As a result, everybody focusses on his personal interests and not the -
collective interests. This sometimes leads to incompetent and wrong selections of the candidates in the government.

(iv) Role of money in a democrac…

Explain the process of unification of Italy


Political Fragmentation of Italy Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italy was divided into seven states during the middle of the nineteenth century.
Of these seven states only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. At that time North of Italy was under Austrian Habsburg, the centre was ruled by Pope and the Southern regions were ruled by the Bourbon kings of Spain.

Role of Mazzini:
During 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had tried to unite Italy. He formed the secret society called young Italy.
But both the uprising in 1831 and 1848 failed. Even the ruling elites also wanted a unified Italy which would offer economic development and political dominance.

Role of Cavour:

The unification of Italy was a result of many wars. Chief Minister Cavour made a tactful diplomatic alliance with France, and Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.

Role of Garibaldi:
A large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi jo…

Differentiate between economic and non-economic activities


Basis of difference : Meaning :
1. Economic activities : Economic activities are those activities which are performed to earn a livelihood.
2. Non-economic activities : Non-economic activities are those activities which are performed out of love, sympathy, sentiments, patriotism, etc
Aim :
1. Economic activities :
The main aim of these activities is to earn profits
2. Non-economic activities : The main aim of these activities is psychological satisfaction.
End result :
1. Economic activities :
The end result of these activi-ties is to satisfy human need…
2. Non-economic activities :The end result of these activities is mental satisfaction of the person performing them.
Examples :
1. Economic activities :
A teacher, a carpenter,a doctor, an artist, etc
2. Non-economic activities : A teacher teaching her own son, a doctor treating poor patients without charging any fees, etc.

Distinguish between the Federal form of Government and Unitary form of Government. Or What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one ? Explain with an example


Differentiate between Horizontal division of powers and vertical division of powers


Difference between Horizontal division of powers and Vertical division of powers.

Horizontal Division of Powers
(i) Horizontal Division of powers is such a power sharing arrangement in which power is shared , among different organs of government as, legislature, executive and judiciary.

(ii) In horizontal division of powers, different organs of government exercise different powers, i.e., there is a concept of separation of powers.

(iii) Horizontal distribution specifies the concept of checks and balances in order to check the exercises of unlimited powers of the organs.

(iv) Horizontal distribution of power ensures the concept of the expansion of democracy.

Vertical Divisions of Powers
(i) In Vertical Division of powers, power can be shared among governments at different levels like union, state and local levels of such government, i.e., it involves higher and lower levels of government.

(ii) Whereas, in vertical division of powers, constitution clearly lays down the powers of differe…

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